Biological desulfurization is a new technology to replace chemical desulfurization. It can overcome the shortcomings of chemical desulfurization in many ways. In the process of biological desulfurization, two kinds of microorganisms are involved, namely photoautotrophic microorganism and chemical autotrophic microorganism. Biological desulfurization of biogas summarizes the advantages of these two kinds of microorganisms in removing H2S from biogas.
(1) Green sulfur bacteria is an ideal microorganism for the removal of H2S from biogas by photoautotrophic microorganism technology, because it can utilize inorganic carbon sources. At the same time, this microorganism has high desulfurization efficiency, and the metabolite sulfur is released outside the cell, so it is easy to separate.
However, light and bacteria need a lot of radiation energy in the process of transformation. Because the transmittance of sulfur particles in the reaction system will be greatly reduced, thus affecting the desulfurization efficiency, it is difficult to achieve in economic conditions. If breakthroughs can be made in reducing the energy consumption and improving the efficiency of light sources, the application of this method will have broad market application prospects.
(2) Under the condition of strictly controlling oxygen supply, the removal of H2S from biogas by chemoautotrophic microorganisms has broad market prospects, especially the two-stage desulfurization process [13,14], which has a precedent in engineering application (Shell-Parker process). The process has the characteristics of no impact on the recovery and utilization of biogas and no new environmental pollution. In addition, the method of iron salt regeneration has become a new research hotspot in recent years, in which H2S is absorbed by iron salt and then regenerated by biological oxidation.
(3) Biodesulfurization technology must have several conditions: first, reliable efficiency; second, less nutrients needed; third, the elemental sulfur in biomass can be easily separated.
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